Non-boldface checklists are used to provide decision support when time is not critical. In complicated situations, such as multiple system failures, the checklist appears in the form of a flow chart or decision tree, helping the pilot(s) to navigate the process. In modern aircraft, the checklist is built into the electronic cockpit system, which leads the pilots through the appropriate steps on the screen. The steps are colour-coded for urgency and ranked in priority order. As steps are completed, they disappear from the screen. Checklist items are arranged in a systems operational sequence and are consistent with the patterns of motor and eye movements of the crew.
Let’s take a simple example. When you get in a car, you can’t just drive because there is a set of specific operations to be done. These include fastening your seat belt, removing the handbrake, putting a transmission gear lever into neutral position, starting the engine, checking the indicators, etc. After you have checked and accomplished all these routine tasks, you can press the accelerator pedal and drive. Every driver has this checklist in his/her memory because of its regular use. If your set of tasks is bigger or varies frequently, it’s challenging to keep it memorized all the time.
Clinicians have long relied on an analogous form of decision support such as lists or algorithms for differential diagnosis. When a patient presentation is unusual (non-normal but not emergent), differential diagnosis lists (whether in old-fashioned textbooks or new-fashioned handhelds) support clinical performance by serving as a cognitive aid. The practice of reviewing a complete differential helps overcome anchoring and confirmation biases and can be a forcing function to ensure that every critical, and treatable aetiology is ‘ruled out’. Unlike non-normal checklists that are built into cockpit workflow, differential lists are often not well-integrated into clinical workflow and this may undermine their use.12
Being a professional implies constant education. Even top-notch experts have to nurture their domain knowledge to maintain their background. At the same time, can we claim that a high level of expertise guarantees lack of errors? The question is especially acute in software development where each error results in an increase in time and cost. Therefore, regardless of the chosen methodology - Agile, Lean, Rapid, Feature Driven, or others - striving to organize software development processes should be a top priority for project managers and other leaders. In that context, similar to the unsung hero, whose is not noticed by the public but crucial for the history, checklists come to center stage.
We’ve mentioned debugging as a component of the deployment process. However, a process of removing existing and potential errors in the code can be optimized with checklists describing the most important steps for both novice and experienced team members. With that in mind, you will turn the never-ending process of fixing errors into an organized and tailored activity for product optimization.
You need sprint planning to ascertain the relevant context of the product and responsibility for certain tasks. The process itself is a kind of endorsement of the decisions taken during the backlog refinement. The checklist's role is to establish a proper context at every point of the backlog. It is a good practice to shape a separate list for three stages of the session - before, after and during the sprint planning. In doing so, you will reduce the cognitive load of handling practices.
Agile software development leverages a technique called the user story to get enough information for implementing software features from an end-user perspective. Shaping acceptance criteria is an integral part of this process that can be improved with a checklist's help. You can create a special format containing categories, point assessments, labels, names, etc. For example, a Definition of Ready can be transformed in Definition of Done category after changing the story specification. On the picture below, you can see an implementation plan, which is, in fact, a ToDo list containing guidance on how to handle the user story written in the description section.
My interest in general checklists above and beyond the detailed lab notebook began after reading The Checklist Manifesto by Atul Gawande, a surgeon and Harvard Professor (he also is the author of a New Yorker column on the same subject). The purpose of this book is to describe how a basic checklist can help us perform complex tasks consistently, correctly, and safely. Much of the book is told from the point of view of eliminating errors during surgery, but Gawande also draws on stories on how checklists have benefited those in construction, aviation, and investing.
In healthcare, this type of operational check of equipment has evolved along with advanced medical technology. Since 1993, Anaesthesia Apparatus Checkout Recommendations have targeted the proper configuration of anaesthesia gas delivery systems.9 These recommendations are intended to be peer-reviewed, modified and updated for each specific type of manufactured anaesthesia equipment. Thus, prechecks are incorporated into manufacturing and inservicing of equipment and iteratively updated by the professionals using them. Operating room and anaesthesia workflows accommodate these prechecks.